Enterovirus associated hand, foot and mouth diseases with neurologic symptoms, a university hospital experience in Korea, China [ 38 ]. Manifestations of the disease on the skin consist of multiple lesions on the hands and feet, and occur concurrently or shortly after the oral lesions. Australia and New Zealand have also reported outbreaks of HFMD in recent years; however, it is difficult to determine the frequency at which outbreaks may be occurring, as this disease is not notifiable to any public health unit. Similarly, dentists have a key role in educating patients by recommending good oral hygiene to minimize the spread of the disease. In a meta-analysis by Li et al.

Figure 2 shows an optical coherence tomography retinal thickness map and horizontal high-resolution images of the right eye showing central serous chorioretinopathy. Int J Health Geogr. However it is the most common infectious disease in China, with an incidence rate of around ,—1,, cases per year [ 2 ]. South Korea, [ 12 ]. Discussion HFMD is a syndrome caused by intestinal viruses from the Picornaviridae family, and is mainly characterized by the appearance of vesicular lesions on the mouth, hands and feet.

literature review hfmd

Clinical features and management outcomes of severe hand, foot and mouth disease. Prevention and management strategies Outbreaks, severe disease, and case reports of spread of the disease to immunocompetent reviwe has prompted the WHO to produce a guide for clinical management and public health response.

literature review hfmd

A case of hand-foot-mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult. Child care workers and workplace hazards in the United States: Four days after the initial onset of symptoms, the patient had developed extensive blisters extending beyond the palmar surfaces of hands and feet and onto the face, nasal cavity, ears, scalp, and buttocks. Int Med Case Rep J. The biological relationship between climate indicators and EV activity is quite complicated and different reports on the subject do not reveal the same results, so it deserves to be investigated in future studies to get better information on this relationship [ 229 ].


His personal history was significant: The mean serum VA concentration for all patients was 0.

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China: Atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease: Hfmx a meta-analysis by Li et al. Serum microRNA expression profile distinguishes enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus 16 infections in patients with hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

Published online Mar There was a higher prevalence in boys than in girls. Following symptomatic treatment, the symptoms remitted in 7 days.

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. Author information Article notes Copyright literxture License information Disclaimer.

Namely, induction of cellular and humoral immunity should be considered when developing vaccines and further analyzed in clinical trials [ 44 ].

Recently, cellular receptors have been identified, along with host factors that stimulate EV Can Med Assoc J. Nanchang, China [ 14 ].

Best practices to prevent transmission and control outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in childcare facilities: Epidemic characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shanghai from to Int J Health Geogr.


An adult case of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 accompanied by opsoclonus myoclonica. Patients with CVA6 associated HFMD symptoms of llterature saw a broader spectrum of the destruction to the skin and deeper tissues, such as nail abnormalities and peeling.

Annual incidence rate of HFMD rose from His ocular history indicated complete vision with no impairment in either eye.

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

He had an unremarkable medical history, except childhood asthma and mild atopic associations. Ann Acad Med Singapore.

Support Center Support Center. VA status is associated with the antiviral immunity and pathogenetic condition of HFMD in young children. Beijing, China [ 2 ].

The seroprevalence study shows a common dissemination of CVA16 and EV71 in Germany, and a comparatively higher sensitivity in the younger population. This suggests that cellular immune response correlates with the clinical severity of HFMD.

Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot and mouth disease:

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