For the level of crop-livestock interactions, market access and population pressure also emerged as key driving forces. In the Wolfhezerheide, another heathland area in the Veluwe, Calluna sp. In farmhouse Spijkenisse , dated in the Early Iron Age, a hole was made in a roof supporting post. However, it is clear from chapter 3 that cattle foraged for Phragmites australis on a great scale until November. Famous examples are the bog bodies found in the peat areas of northwestern Europe.

The fact that late-flowering weeds occur together with the Linum usitatissimum processing waste is, however, not a good argument to interpret the macroremains as hay. Bark was considered as fodder for hard times and was generally given as addmixture to supplement shortages Ropeid cited by Van Vuure , It is more likely that the stable manure layers were deposited in the autumn, a period when cattle still forage much for Phragmites australis see chapter 3. Buurman , noted that small quantities of fragmented and unidentifiable bones, charred plant remains and very tiny pottery fragments were found in the ard marks from the Bronze Age site Bovenkarspel-Het Valkje. Questions remain about which behaviors need to be addressed to change BP and in whom, as westmaas as whether to address behaviors at the same time or sequentially, scheduled or not scheduled.

The calculation from above showed that in a grain stack the harvest of 0,33 ha could be adequately stored in the beginning of the 20th century. This intensification of the agriculture could be achieved thanks to the mechanization and the introduction of fertilizers, weed killers and concentrates.

Thesis B.V. at Smidsweg 24, LK Westmaas, Netherlands

Another indication of crop-livestock interaction is that the manure was used on the farm to fertilise the fields. Nearest to the river, there were reed vegetation types. The annotated bibliography is composed using some citation Though an annotation is often as brief as a paragraph.


Some regions had enough good hay lands, such as Friesland and the river area. One well known wetland site is the Neolithic settlement of Vb Weier in Switzerland. Bovenkarspel for references see table 7.

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As sediments build up, these flats are colonized by salt-loving plants leading to the creation of a salt marsh. For the complete information see appendix III, tables 4 to In this study, De Hingh, deconstructed the intensification process during the protohistory into two characteristic individual stages.

In the samples with the high concentrations of Brassica rapa, also Stellaria media chickweedanother low-growing summer crop weed, occurs.

thesis bv westmaas

The staddle allowed the tide to flow unhindered beneath the hay stack. Unfortunately there are no protohistorical skeletons researched on intestinal contents. They do not occur in the archaeological record before the end of the 9th century Huijbers This is very labor-intensive and therefore seldom applied.

This part is explanation part which is seen in thesis engines.

Thesis B.V. at Smidsweg 24, LK Westmaas, Netherlands

Eventually, a mature marsh will develop which is only thesjs very occasionally during the winter spring tides. The thesis will be concluded with the proposals for further research on the intensification process. Thus 0,25 ha seems to be a unit that reoccurs in different protohistorical sites with grain stacks.

The fact that late-flowering weeds occur together with the Linum usitatissimum processing waste is, however, not a good argument to interpret the macroremains as hay. Home Wedtmaas litteraire definition Pages A3. Wallis de Vriesstudied the diet selection and performance of free ranging cattle in heathland the Doorwerthse Heide htesis Karshoek and riverine grassland Renkumse Benedenwaarden and Karshoek in the Netherlands.

During historical times the straw of Brassica rapa ssp. In the case of a three- five- or six-post polygon hay stack the roof construction had to be hinged Kuijsten7, 8.


These elements indicate that the building methods were adjusted to the bearing capacity of the soft and unstable peat soil and that heavy pressure was brought on the storage structures by the stocked goods. From ethnographical and historical research it is wesmtaas that acorns in different regions were used as food source in periods wextmaas food shortage but sometimes also as a regular food source Mason12, 13, The size of the seeds can also give an indication of the prime function of Linum usitatissimum.

To get an understanding of the volumes we first have to get an impression about how much grain a family needed in a year.

thesis bv westmaas

Due to good conservation in the peat areas, some hearths 27 Samples and from site M. The general hypothetical model of intensification originates in the already mentioned work of Boserup. We can therefore expect that the straw of Hordeum vulgare wesgmaas used as fodder. This figure coincides roughly with the surface necessary to build a grain stack out of sheaves.

Although there are strong indications of the existence of fields on the peat, there is little known about their appearance. So was the high percentage of pollen, leaf fragments and fruits of Myrica gale bog myrtle in the pellets found at site Q in the Assendelver Polders the reason for the researchers to assign the pellets to goats, as sheep dislike the bitter taste of Myrica gale.

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