Results from a rigorous three-year study of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, which mandates programs to provide out-of-school-time enrichment, remediation, and homework assistance in reading, math, and other subjects, did not find any connection between providing structured time for homework completion and academic performance James-Burdumy, Dynarski, Moore, Deke, Mansfield, Pistorino, and Warner However, numerous shortcomings still exist in the seventeen studies Cooper examined. Essentially, as students age, the positive effect of homework on achievement becomes more pronounced. What research says about the value of homework: Such a study tests causal hypotheses without random assignment. Structural equation modeling provides a more rigorous method of examining relationships between variables than path analysis alone Garson Although the overall effects of homework on student achievement are inconclusive, studies involving students at different grade levels suggest that homework may be more effective for older students than for younger ones.
In addition, students who were assigned interactive homework also returned more homework assignments than students who were assigned noninteractive homework. Although homework cannot serve as an easy answer to raising student achievement, the literature suggests that it can have a direct effect on student learning under certain conditions and an indirect effect under other conditions. Thus, higher income students who are high achieving gain the most from homework when compared to other high-income or high-achieving students, which begs the question of how much lower-income students—and especially low-achieving lower-income students—can benefit from homework. In Chen and Stevenson’s cross-cultural examination of homework in grades one, three, and five, the researchers argue that homework can have a negative impact on students’ attitudes toward school. Kralovec and Buell attribute the lack of conclusive evidence to the diversity of research questions and designs used in homework research. Yet, multiple studies highlight the impact of parent involvement on homework.
What research says about the value of homework: Research review
The new backlash against homework could be viewed as part of the natural cycle, or as homeworl fresh perspective on how these strict accountability requirements affect students. However, as mentioned earlier, homework assigned to younger students may have its main effects on nonacademic outcomes, and teachers may be assigning young students homework for noninstructional purposes.
Some research also suggests that homework has nonacademic benefits, such as helping children establish routines, develop study skills, and take responsibility. If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE.
What research says about the value of homework: Research review | Center for Public Education
Remember me on this computer. This research indicates that a variety of factors influence homework’s effect on students, including the subject matter, the amount of homework, and the nature of the assignment; classroom factors such as provision of materials and follow-up discussion in class; and home or community factors such as parent involvement Cooper a.
Their study, which addressed several concerns regarding the possible effects of students’ age, yielded these findings: This renewed interest led to the view that homework was a necessary tool in the learning process albeit not for elementary school children. Some even blamed homework for the child mortality rate Gill and Schlossman ; one writer of the period referred to homework as a “legalized criminality” Nash7.
Preparation homework is assigned to introduce students to material the teacher will present in the future. Following the launch of Sputnik, “the homework problem was reconceived as part of a national crisis: In addition, students who were assigned interactive homework also returned more homework assignments than students who were assigned noninteractive homework. However, other researchers offer contrasting views and contend that the impact of homework time on achievement is greater at the earlier fourth and fifth grade levels, compared to the later sixth to tenth grade levels De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemers Thus, “homework can be employed to increase the effectiveness of direct instruction sequences with students diagnosed as [learning disabled]” Notably, the frequency of homework assignments and the amount of time students spent on them were not related to achievement.
Interestingly, the amount of homework assigned by homewori was typically unrelated to foutts achievement; yet, as in his earlier findings, student reports of the amount of homework completed were positively associated with student achievement.
Because the research on homework is mixed, teachers should think carefully about what tasks they assign for homework, and what the purpose of that homework truly is. Studies have also looked at how long students of various ability levels homeworj on homework.
The researcher found that these assignments promoted higher levels of parent involvement than did noninteractive assignments. Alfie Kohn, a critic of homework, recently wrote, “There was no consistent linear or curvilinear relation between the amount of time spent on homework and the child’s level of academic achievement” Much research has been conducted to try to understand the ways in which various types of homework and various homeeork influence different groups of students.
Epstein attributes the results to the possibility that parents may spend more time helping their children if they are poor-performing rather than high-performing students. Teachers report assigning extension and integration homework far less frequently than practice and preparation homework Murphy and Decker Although, like many researchers, he concluded that homework—compared to no homework—had a statistically positive impact on student achievement, Foyle did not find a significant difference in achievement between practice and preparation homework.
While many researchers take either a positive or a negative stance on homework, Cooper takes a more balanced approach, stating, “Research on the effects of homework suggests that it is beneficial as long as teachers use their knowledge of developmental levels to guide policies and expectations” Theory into Practice43, — Specifically, traditional, daily, and graded homework had the greatest positive impact on student achievement in the fourth and fifth grades.
Some researchers report that despite media reports of a public revolt against homewor, the majority of parents, educators, and policymakers support homework.
Researchers also have examined possible nonacademic benefits from homework. The results, while not clear cut, suggest the following lessons: A quasi-experimental study by Van Voorhis looked at science homework involving interaction between parent and student to measure its impact on homewotk involvement and academic achievement.
What is the Purpose of Homework? – McREL International
Policy homework is often assigned to fulfill mandates from school or district administration, such as requirements for a specified amount of daily or weekly homework. Homework may be defined in simple terms as “tasks assigned to students by school teachers that are meant to be carried out during non-school hours” Cooper a, 7but the topic has many aspects, including the purpose of homework, the interaction level of the assignment, and teacher feedback.
School board members have long struggled with this question as they strive to implement policies that will support student learning. Kralovec and Buell hkmework that homework critics rarely question the work assigned but rather the fact coitts the work is so often performed at home without adult supervision to aid the learning process.
This research indicates that a variety of factors influence homework’s effect on students, including the subject matter, the amount of homework, and the nature of the assignment; classroom factors such as provision of materials and follow-up discussion in class; and home or community factors such as parent involvement Cooper a.